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Blobstream proofs queries

Prerequisites

  • Access to a Celestia full consensus node RPC endpoint (or full node). The node doesn't need to be a validating node in order for the proofs to be queried. A full node is enough.

For golang snippets, the tendermint RPC client, referred to as trpc, will be used for the queries. It can be initialized using:

go
    trpc, err := http.New("<rpc_endpoint>", "/websocket")
	if err != nil {
		...
	}
	err = trpc.Start()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer func(trpc *http.HTTP) {
		err := trpc.Stop()
		if err != nil {
			...
		}
	}(trpc)
    trpc, err := http.New("<rpc_endpoint>", "/websocket")
	if err != nil {
		...
	}
	err = trpc.Start()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer func(trpc *http.HTTP) {
		err := trpc.Stop()
		if err != nil {
			...
		}
	}(trpc)

The <rpc_endpoint> can be retrieved from mainnet for Celestia mainnet beta, and mocha for the Mocha testnet.

In case the reader wants to interact with an on-chain contract that can be used to verify that data was posted to Celestia, the bindings of that contract are needed.

For Blobstream, the golang bindings can be found in the Blobstream X repository. For other languages, the corresponding smart contract bindings should be generated. Refer to abigen for more information.

Overview of the proof queries

To prove the inclusion of PayForBlobs (PFB) transactions, blobs or shares, committed to in a Celestia block, we use the Celestia consensus node's RPC to query for proofs that can be verified in a rollup settlement contract via Blobstream. In fact, when a PFB transaction is included in a block, it gets separated into a PFB transaction (without the blob), and the actual data blob that it carries. These two are split into shares, which are the low level constructs of a Celestia block, and saved to the corresponding Celestia block. Learn more about shares in the shares specs.

The two diagrams below summarize how a single share, which can contain a PFB transaction, or a part of the rollup data that was posted using a PFB, is committed to in Blobstream.

The share is highlighted in green. R0, R1 etc, represent the respective row and column roots, the blue and pink gradients are erasure encoded data. More details on the square layout can be found in the data square layout and data structures portion of the specs.

The Celestia square

Square

The commitment scheme

Blobstream Commitment Diagram

So to prove inclusion of a share to a Celestia block, we use Blobstream as a source of truth. Currently, we will be using the Blobstream X implementation of Blobstream, more information on Blobstream X can be found in the overview. In a nutshell, Blobstream X attests to the data posted to Celestia in the Blobstream X contract via verifying a zk-proof of the headers of a batch of Celestia blocks. Then, it keeps reference of that batch of blocks using the merkleized commitment of their (dataRoot, height) resulting in a data root tuple root. Check the above diagram which shows:

  • 0: those are the shares, that when unified, contain the PFB or the rollup data blob.
  • 1: the row and column roots are the namespace merkle tree roots over the shares. More information on the NMT in the NMT specs. These commit to the rows and columns containing the above shares.
  • 2: the data roots: which are the binary merkle tree commitment over the row and column roots. This means that if you can prove that a share is part of a row, using a namespace merkle proof. Then prove that this row is committed to by the data root. Then you can be sure that that share was published to the corresponding block.
  • 3: in order to batch multiple blocks into the same commitment, we create a commitment over the (dataRoot, height) tuple for a batch of blocks, which results in a data root tuple root. It's this commitment that gets stored in the Blobstream X smart contract.

So, if we're able to prove that a share is part of a row, then that row is committed to by a data root. Then, prove that that data root along with its height is committed to by the data root tuple root, which gets saved to the Blobstream X contract, we can be sure that that share was committed to in the corresponding Celestia block.

In this document, we will provide details on how to query the above proofs, and how to adapt them to be sent to a rollup contract for verification.

Hands-on demonstration

This part will provide the details of proof generation, and the way to make the results of the proofs queries ready to be consumed by the target rollup contract.

NOTE

For the go client snippets, make sure to have the following replaces in your go.mod:

go
// go.mod
    github.com/cosmos/cosmos-sdk => github.com/celestiaorg/cosmos-sdk v1.18.3-sdk-v0.46.14
    github.com/gogo/protobuf => github.com/regen-network/protobuf v1.3.3-alpha.regen.1
    github.com/syndtr/goleveldb => github.com/syndtr/goleveldb v1.0.1-0.20210819022825-2ae1ddf74ef7
    github.com/tendermint/tendermint => github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-core v1.32.0-tm-v0.34.29

)
// go.mod
    github.com/cosmos/cosmos-sdk => github.com/celestiaorg/cosmos-sdk v1.18.3-sdk-v0.46.14
    github.com/gogo/protobuf => github.com/regen-network/protobuf v1.3.3-alpha.regen.1
    github.com/syndtr/goleveldb => github.com/syndtr/goleveldb v1.0.1-0.20210819022825-2ae1ddf74ef7
    github.com/tendermint/tendermint => github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-core v1.32.0-tm-v0.34.29

)

Also, make sure to update the versions to match the latest github.com/celestiaorg/cosmos-sdk and github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-core versions.

1. Data root inclusion proof

To prove the data root is committed to by the Blobstream X smart contract, we will need to provide a Merkle proof of the data root tuple to a data root tuple root. This can be created using the data_root_inclusion_proof query.

This endpoint allows querying a data root to data root tuple root proof. It takes a block height, a starting block, and an end block, then it generates the binary Merkle proof of the DataRootTuple, corresponding to that height, to the DataRootTupleRoot which is committed to in the Blobstream X contract.

HTTP query

Example HTTP request: <tendermint_rpc_endpoint>/data_root_inclusion_proof?height=15&start=10&end=20

Which queries the proof of the height 15 to the data commitment defined by the range [10, 20).

Example response:

json
{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "id": -1,
  "result": {
    "proof": {
      "total": "10",
      "index": "5",
      "leaf_hash": "vkRaRg7FGtZ/ZhsJRh/Uhhb3U6dPaYJ1pJNEfrwq5HE=",
      "aunts": [
        "nmBWWwHpipHwagaI7MAqM/yhCDb4cz7z4lRxmVRq5f8=",
        "nyzLbFJjnSKOfRZur8xvJiJLA+wBPtwm0KbYglILxLg=",
        "GI/tJ9WSwcyHM0r0i8t+p3hPFtDieuYR9wSPVkL1r2s=",
        "+SGf6MfzMmtDKz5MLlH+y7mPV9Moo2x5rLjLe3gbFQo="
      ]
    }
  }
}
{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "id": -1,
  "result": {
    "proof": {
      "total": "10",
      "index": "5",
      "leaf_hash": "vkRaRg7FGtZ/ZhsJRh/Uhhb3U6dPaYJ1pJNEfrwq5HE=",
      "aunts": [
        "nmBWWwHpipHwagaI7MAqM/yhCDb4cz7z4lRxmVRq5f8=",
        "nyzLbFJjnSKOfRZur8xvJiJLA+wBPtwm0KbYglILxLg=",
        "GI/tJ9WSwcyHM0r0i8t+p3hPFtDieuYR9wSPVkL1r2s=",
        "+SGf6MfzMmtDKz5MLlH+y7mPV9Moo2x5rLjLe3gbFQo="
      ]
    }
  }
}

NOTE: These values are base64 encoded. For these to be usable with the solidity smart contract, they need to be converted to bytes32. Check the next section for more information.

Golang client

The endpoint can also be queried using the golang client:

go
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
	"os"
)

func main() {
	ctx := context.Background()
	trpc, err := http.New("tcp://localhost:26657", "/websocket")
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
	err = trpc.Start()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
	dcProof, err := trpc.DataRootInclusionProof(ctx, 15, 10, 20)
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
	fmt.Println(dcProof.Proof.String())
}
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
	"os"
)

func main() {
	ctx := context.Background()
	trpc, err := http.New("tcp://localhost:26657", "/websocket")
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
	err = trpc.Start()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
	dcProof, err := trpc.DataRootInclusionProof(ctx, 15, 10, 20)
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
	fmt.Println(dcProof.Proof.String())
}

Full example of proving that a Celestia block was committed to by Blobstream X contract

go
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/pkg/square"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/accounts/abi/bind"
	ethcmn "github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/common"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/ethclient"
	blobstreamxwrapper "github.com/succinctlabs/blobstreamx/bindings"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/crypto/merkle"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
	"math/big"
	"os"
)

func main() {
	err := verify()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
}

func verify() error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// start the tendermint RPC client
	trpc, err := http.New("tcp://localhost:26657", "/websocket")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	err = trpc.Start()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// get the PayForBlob transaction that contains the published blob
	tx, err := trpc.Tx(ctx, []byte("tx_hash"), true)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// get the block containing the PayForBlob transaction
	blockRes, err := trpc.Block(ctx, &tx.Height)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// get the nonce corresponding to the block height that contains
	// the PayForBlob transaction
	// since BlobstreamX emits events when new batches are submitted,
	// we will query the events
	// and look for the range committing to the blob
	// first, connect to an EVM RPC endpoint
	ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc_endpoint")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer ethClient.Close()

	// use the BlobstreamX contract binding
	wrapper, err := blobstreamxwrapper.NewBlobstreamX(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_Address"), ethClient)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	LatestBlockNumber, err := ethClient.BlockNumber(context.Background())
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	eventsIterator, err := wrapper.FilterDataCommitmentStored(
		&bind.FilterOpts{
			Context: ctx,
			Start: LatestBlockNumber - 90000,
			End: &LatestBlockNumber,
		},
		nil,
		nil,
		nil,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	var event *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored
	for eventsIterator.Next() {
		e := eventsIterator.Event
		if int64(e.StartBlock) <= tx.Height && tx.Height < int64(e.EndBlock) {
			event = &blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored{
				ProofNonce:     e.ProofNonce,
				StartBlock:     e.StartBlock,
				EndBlock:       e.EndBlock,
				DataCommitment: e.DataCommitment,
			}
			break
		}
	}
	if err := eventsIterator.Error(); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	err = eventsIterator.Close()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if event == nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("couldn't find range containing the transaction height")
	}

	// get the block data root inclusion proof to the data root tuple root
	dcProof, err := trpc.DataRootInclusionProof(ctx, uint64(tx.Height), event.StartBlock, event.EndBlock)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// verify that the data root was committed to by the BlobstreamX contract
	committed, err := VerifyDataRootInclusion(ctx, wrapper, event.ProofNonce.Uint64(), uint64(tx.Height), blockRes.Block.DataHash, dcProof.Proof)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if committed {
		fmt.Println("data root was committed to by the BlobstreamX contract")
	} else {
		fmt.Println("data root was not committed to by the BlobstreamX contract")
		return nil
	}
    return nil
}

func VerifyDataRootInclusion(
	_ context.Context,
	blobstreamXwrapper *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamX,
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	dataRoot []byte,
	proof merkle.Proof,
) (bool, error) {
	tuple := blobstreamxwrapper.DataRootTuple{
		Height:   big.NewInt(int64(height)),
		DataRoot: *(*[32]byte)(dataRoot),
	}

	sideNodes := make([][32]byte, len(proof.Aunts))
	for i, aunt := range proof.Aunts {
		sideNodes[i] = *(*[32]byte)(aunt)
	}
	wrappedProof := blobstreamxwrapper.BinaryMerkleProof{
		SideNodes: sideNodes,
		Key:       big.NewInt(proof.Index),
		NumLeaves: big.NewInt(proof.Total),
	}

	valid, err := blobstreamXwrapper.VerifyAttestation(
		&bind.CallOpts{},
		big.NewInt(int64(nonce)),
		tuple,
		wrappedProof,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return false, err
	}
	return valid, nil
}
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/pkg/square"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/accounts/abi/bind"
	ethcmn "github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/common"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/ethclient"
	blobstreamxwrapper "github.com/succinctlabs/blobstreamx/bindings"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/crypto/merkle"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
	"math/big"
	"os"
)

func main() {
	err := verify()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
}

func verify() error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// start the tendermint RPC client
	trpc, err := http.New("tcp://localhost:26657", "/websocket")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	err = trpc.Start()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// get the PayForBlob transaction that contains the published blob
	tx, err := trpc.Tx(ctx, []byte("tx_hash"), true)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// get the block containing the PayForBlob transaction
	blockRes, err := trpc.Block(ctx, &tx.Height)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// get the nonce corresponding to the block height that contains
	// the PayForBlob transaction
	// since BlobstreamX emits events when new batches are submitted,
	// we will query the events
	// and look for the range committing to the blob
	// first, connect to an EVM RPC endpoint
	ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc_endpoint")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer ethClient.Close()

	// use the BlobstreamX contract binding
	wrapper, err := blobstreamxwrapper.NewBlobstreamX(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_Address"), ethClient)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	LatestBlockNumber, err := ethClient.BlockNumber(context.Background())
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	eventsIterator, err := wrapper.FilterDataCommitmentStored(
		&bind.FilterOpts{
			Context: ctx,
			Start: LatestBlockNumber - 90000,
			End: &LatestBlockNumber,
		},
		nil,
		nil,
		nil,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	var event *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored
	for eventsIterator.Next() {
		e := eventsIterator.Event
		if int64(e.StartBlock) <= tx.Height && tx.Height < int64(e.EndBlock) {
			event = &blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored{
				ProofNonce:     e.ProofNonce,
				StartBlock:     e.StartBlock,
				EndBlock:       e.EndBlock,
				DataCommitment: e.DataCommitment,
			}
			break
		}
	}
	if err := eventsIterator.Error(); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	err = eventsIterator.Close()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if event == nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("couldn't find range containing the transaction height")
	}

	// get the block data root inclusion proof to the data root tuple root
	dcProof, err := trpc.DataRootInclusionProof(ctx, uint64(tx.Height), event.StartBlock, event.EndBlock)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// verify that the data root was committed to by the BlobstreamX contract
	committed, err := VerifyDataRootInclusion(ctx, wrapper, event.ProofNonce.Uint64(), uint64(tx.Height), blockRes.Block.DataHash, dcProof.Proof)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if committed {
		fmt.Println("data root was committed to by the BlobstreamX contract")
	} else {
		fmt.Println("data root was not committed to by the BlobstreamX contract")
		return nil
	}
    return nil
}

func VerifyDataRootInclusion(
	_ context.Context,
	blobstreamXwrapper *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamX,
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	dataRoot []byte,
	proof merkle.Proof,
) (bool, error) {
	tuple := blobstreamxwrapper.DataRootTuple{
		Height:   big.NewInt(int64(height)),
		DataRoot: *(*[32]byte)(dataRoot),
	}

	sideNodes := make([][32]byte, len(proof.Aunts))
	for i, aunt := range proof.Aunts {
		sideNodes[i] = *(*[32]byte)(aunt)
	}
	wrappedProof := blobstreamxwrapper.BinaryMerkleProof{
		SideNodes: sideNodes,
		Key:       big.NewInt(proof.Index),
		NumLeaves: big.NewInt(proof.Total),
	}

	valid, err := blobstreamXwrapper.VerifyAttestation(
		&bind.CallOpts{},
		big.NewInt(int64(nonce)),
		tuple,
		wrappedProof,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return false, err
	}
	return valid, nil
}

2. Transaction inclusion proof

To prove that a rollup transaction, the PFB transaction and not the blob containing the Rollup blocks data, is part of the data root, we will need to provide two proofs: (1) a namespace Merkle proof of the transaction to a row root. This could be done via proving the shares that contain the transaction to the row root using a namespace Merkle proof. (2) And a binary Merkle proof of the row root to the data root.

Transaction inclusion proof using the transaction hash

Given a transaction hash, the transaction inclusion proof can be queried from the transaction query.

HTTP request

Example request: <tendermint_rpc_endpoint>/tx?hash=0xEF9F50BFB39F11B022A6CD7026574ECCDC6D596689BDCCC7B2C482A1B26B26B8&prove=true

Which queries the transaction whose hash is EF9F50BFB39F11B022A6CD7026574ECCDC6D596689BDCCC7B2C482A1B26B26B8 and sets the prove parameter as true to also get its inclusion proof.

Example response:

json
{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "id": -1,
  "result": {
    "hash": "EF9F50BFB39F11B022A6CD7026574ECCDC6D596689BDCCC7B2C482A1B26B26B8",
    "height": "1350632",
    "index": 4,
    "tx_result": {
      "code": 0,
      "data": "EioKKC9jZWxlc3RpYS5ibG9iLnYxLk1zZ1BheUZvckJsb2JzUmVzcG9uc2U=",
      "log": "[{\"msg_index\":0,\"events\":[{\"type\":\"celestia.blob.v1.EventPayForBlobs\",\"attributes\":[{\"key\":\"blob_sizes\",\"value\":\"[120000]\"},{\"key\":\"namespaces\",\"value\":\"[\\\"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUU=\\\"]\"},{\"key\":\"signer\",\"value\":\"\\\"celestia1vdjkcetnw35kzvtk8pjhxcm4xan82wtvwcurwwtt0f6n2at9va6k2atjw3cn2umhxe58xmfndejs40vqs9\\\"\"}]},{\"type\":\"message\",\"attributes\":[{\"key\":\"action\",\"value\":\"/celestia.blob.v1.MsgPayForBlobs\"}]}]}]",
      "info": "",
      "gas_wanted": "1095604",
      "gas_used": "1080694",
      "events": [
        ...
      ],
      "codespace": ""
    },
    "tx": "CqEBCp4BCiAvY2VsZXN0aWEuYmxvYi52MS5Nc2dQYXlGb3JCbG9icxJ6Ci9jZWxlc3RpYTF2OGVzY3U3ZnU5bHY4NzlrenU1dWVndWV1cnRxNXN3NmhzbTNuZRIdAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUUaA8CpByIgsVXWya9toI+AyTu3JJA2wkI5ZLkm72/gklCGFLCSrm9CAQASaApSCkYKHy9jb3Ntb3MuY3J5cHRvLnNlY3AyNTZrMS5QdWJLZXkSIwohAqdvBVUpglaNDGTlOcGSoHERBAFsFBB5l0WdvBJjEsEHEgQKAggBGJjCARISCgwKBHV0aWESBDIxOTIQtO9CGkCJRjcOYijj81bttfb2GUdG7o8AuAwf0bscBhW9PPD99xpQ1slpemfyq0y1joJ/aRFgE6QNxuiZ18VLGlGEwtW/",
    "proof": {
      "data": [
        "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",
        "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"
      ],
      "share_proofs": [
        {
          "start": 5,
          "end": 7,
          "nodes": [
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAQs98k+8wQ2iX2BdcTfoHjtRQbqybtPdB1BUFY/D7WRs",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAZz5Aj1MiJjrOWJdCifYJkr0pCrOIu2jigmd9BzuhZrO",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAP8AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA/y91DA3ZRyFzmc7L/ZXrxJ96/2ZDIr/JH0tyRmtrDtHA",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFhMtTiEs5RU6k2enIm7ThjQyCL82hSxpinyCELhed9QK+p9ZbNIDe",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFhMtTiEs5RT0T52LWq3L0FNM6KqQKA7NrxFNM8zC/kQKHkPJXMibY",
            "/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////76AU8rJ4VSYVAsPH5LGqQ2KG/oKPajw+kyhnQkq5Vch"
          ]
        }
      ],
      "namespace_id": "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABA==",
      "row_proof": {
        "row_roots": [
          "00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000584CB53884B394593052DF4039E58C7D51F0E45CACE7DD584125F62F9261B7900AC1EEEF5E82349"
        ],
        "proofs": [
          {
            "total": "128",
            "index": "0",
            "leaf_hash": "Qm/3wL9cWxS8rQbDDgUPU9p8jCfJ+Jc77zsSWdcF6PM=",
            "aunts": [
              "+mHKrh9boRgjN3oqt/Np5Wre24w+E79/hzFY/eouJY0=",
              "8woyobNJs3MT1dKFRQID8VC75oJa2jNF3Wn/1USGfT4=",
              "MTgbZqhrQoL61oKKZMhRfYq5bk6gOkLgWrVPArPYXvE=",
              "plW1GXaBNavHWwurqsWB0xH25zv9xhiELqtVld0XQC4=",
              "K/yH2ZDYNE9u/UT8sJtGuH+akiMNQTKUUu/uhlbGdgo=",
              "J2pYcLT4KHpIQvh7b6Wp9KCdMgHLCT9eDfYDr7ZAQ9o=",
              "grZxooejIhch93+g3MLdiBq6fF+nrOAKRBgupfu8mUo="
            ]
          }
        ],
        "start_row": 0,
        "end_row": 0
      },
      "namespace_version": 0
    }
  }
}
{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "id": -1,
  "result": {
    "hash": "EF9F50BFB39F11B022A6CD7026574ECCDC6D596689BDCCC7B2C482A1B26B26B8",
    "height": "1350632",
    "index": 4,
    "tx_result": {
      "code": 0,
      "data": "EioKKC9jZWxlc3RpYS5ibG9iLnYxLk1zZ1BheUZvckJsb2JzUmVzcG9uc2U=",
      "log": "[{\"msg_index\":0,\"events\":[{\"type\":\"celestia.blob.v1.EventPayForBlobs\",\"attributes\":[{\"key\":\"blob_sizes\",\"value\":\"[120000]\"},{\"key\":\"namespaces\",\"value\":\"[\\\"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUU=\\\"]\"},{\"key\":\"signer\",\"value\":\"\\\"celestia1vdjkcetnw35kzvtk8pjhxcm4xan82wtvwcurwwtt0f6n2at9va6k2atjw3cn2umhxe58xmfndejs40vqs9\\\"\"}]},{\"type\":\"message\",\"attributes\":[{\"key\":\"action\",\"value\":\"/celestia.blob.v1.MsgPayForBlobs\"}]}]}]",
      "info": "",
      "gas_wanted": "1095604",
      "gas_used": "1080694",
      "events": [
        ...
      ],
      "codespace": ""
    },
    "tx": "CqEBCp4BCiAvY2VsZXN0aWEuYmxvYi52MS5Nc2dQYXlGb3JCbG9icxJ6Ci9jZWxlc3RpYTF2OGVzY3U3ZnU5bHY4NzlrenU1dWVndWV1cnRxNXN3NmhzbTNuZRIdAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUUaA8CpByIgsVXWya9toI+AyTu3JJA2wkI5ZLkm72/gklCGFLCSrm9CAQASaApSCkYKHy9jb3Ntb3MuY3J5cHRvLnNlY3AyNTZrMS5QdWJLZXkSIwohAqdvBVUpglaNDGTlOcGSoHERBAFsFBB5l0WdvBJjEsEHEgQKAggBGJjCARISCgwKBHV0aWESBDIxOTIQtO9CGkCJRjcOYijj81bttfb2GUdG7o8AuAwf0bscBhW9PPD99xpQ1slpemfyq0y1joJ/aRFgE6QNxuiZ18VLGlGEwtW/",
    "proof": {
      "data": [
        "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",
        "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"
      ],
      "share_proofs": [
        {
          "start": 5,
          "end": 7,
          "nodes": [
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAQs98k+8wQ2iX2BdcTfoHjtRQbqybtPdB1BUFY/D7WRs",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAZz5Aj1MiJjrOWJdCifYJkr0pCrOIu2jigmd9BzuhZrO",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAP8AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA/y91DA3ZRyFzmc7L/ZXrxJ96/2ZDIr/JH0tyRmtrDtHA",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFhMtTiEs5RU6k2enIm7ThjQyCL82hSxpinyCELhed9QK+p9ZbNIDe",
            "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABYTLU4hLOUUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFhMtTiEs5RT0T52LWq3L0FNM6KqQKA7NrxFNM8zC/kQKHkPJXMibY",
            "/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////76AU8rJ4VSYVAsPH5LGqQ2KG/oKPajw+kyhnQkq5Vch"
          ]
        }
      ],
      "namespace_id": "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABA==",
      "row_proof": {
        "row_roots": [
          "00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000584CB53884B394593052DF4039E58C7D51F0E45CACE7DD584125F62F9261B7900AC1EEEF5E82349"
        ],
        "proofs": [
          {
            "total": "128",
            "index": "0",
            "leaf_hash": "Qm/3wL9cWxS8rQbDDgUPU9p8jCfJ+Jc77zsSWdcF6PM=",
            "aunts": [
              "+mHKrh9boRgjN3oqt/Np5Wre24w+E79/hzFY/eouJY0=",
              "8woyobNJs3MT1dKFRQID8VC75oJa2jNF3Wn/1USGfT4=",
              "MTgbZqhrQoL61oKKZMhRfYq5bk6gOkLgWrVPArPYXvE=",
              "plW1GXaBNavHWwurqsWB0xH25zv9xhiELqtVld0XQC4=",
              "K/yH2ZDYNE9u/UT8sJtGuH+akiMNQTKUUu/uhlbGdgo=",
              "J2pYcLT4KHpIQvh7b6Wp9KCdMgHLCT9eDfYDr7ZAQ9o=",
              "grZxooejIhch93+g3MLdiBq6fF+nrOAKRBgupfu8mUo="
            ]
          }
        ],
        "start_row": 0,
        "end_row": 0
      },
      "namespace_version": 0
    }
  }
}

The proof field contains the transaction inclusion proof to the data root.

Also, the share range where this transaction spans is the end exclusive range defined by proof.share_proofs[0].start and proof.share_proofs[0].end.

NOTE: The values are base64 encoded. For these to be usable with the solidity smart contract, they need to be converted to bytes32. Check the next section for more information.

Golang client

Using the golang client:

go
    txHash, err := hex.DecodeString("<transaction_hash>")
    if err != nil {
		...
	}
    tx, err := trpc.Tx(cmd.Context(), txHash, true)
    if err != nil {
		...
    }
    txHash, err := hex.DecodeString("<transaction_hash>")
    if err != nil {
		...
	}
    tx, err := trpc.Tx(cmd.Context(), txHash, true)
    if err != nil {
		...
    }

Then, the proof is under tx.Proof.

Blob inclusion proof using the corresponding PFB transaction hash

Currently, querying the proof of a blob, which contains the Rollup block data, using its corresponding PFB transaction hash is possible only using the golang client. Otherwise, the corresponding share range is required so that the ProveShares endpoint can be used.

Golang client

Using the golang client:

go
import (
	"context"
	"encoding/hex"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/v2/pkg/appconsts"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/go-square/square"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
)

func queryShareRange() error {
	txHash, err := hex.DecodeString("<transaction_hash>")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	tx, err := trpc.Tx(context.Background(), txHash, true)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	
	blockRes, err := trpc.Block(context.Background(), &tx.Height)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	version := blockRes.Block.Header.Version.App
	maxSquareSize := appconsts.SquareSizeUpperBound(version)
	subtreeRootThreshold := appconsts.SubtreeRootThreshold(version)
	blobShareRange, err := square.BlobShareRange(
		blockRes.Block.Txs.ToSliceOfBytes(),
		int(tx.Index),
		<blob_index>,
		maxSquareSize,
		subtreeRootThreshold,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
}
import (
	"context"
	"encoding/hex"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/v2/pkg/appconsts"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/go-square/square"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
)

func queryShareRange() error {
	txHash, err := hex.DecodeString("<transaction_hash>")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	tx, err := trpc.Tx(context.Background(), txHash, true)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	
	blockRes, err := trpc.Block(context.Background(), &tx.Height)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	version := blockRes.Block.Header.Version.App
	maxSquareSize := appconsts.SquareSizeUpperBound(version)
	subtreeRootThreshold := appconsts.SubtreeRootThreshold(version)
	blobShareRange, err := square.BlobShareRange(
		blockRes.Block.Txs.ToSliceOfBytes(),
		int(tx.Index),
		<blob_index>,
		maxSquareSize,
		subtreeRootThreshold,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
}

With the <transaction_hash> being the transaction hash of the PFB containing the blob and, the <blob_index> being the index of the blob. In fact, PayForBlob transactions can contain multiple blobs. So, the <blob_index> is the index of the blob in the PFB.

Specific share range inclusion proof

To retrieve the inclusion proof of a set of shares for whom the share range is already known, the ProveShares query can be used to query it.

This endpoint allows querying a shares proof to row roots, then a row roots to data root proofs. It takes a block height, a starting share index and an end share index which define a share range. Then, two proofs are generated:

  • An NMT proof of the shares to the row roots
  • A binary Merkle proof of the row root to the data root

NOTE

If the share range spans multiple rows, then the proof can contain multiple share to row root NMT proofs and multiple row root to data root binary proofs.

HTTP request

Example request: <tendermint_rpc_endpoint>/prove_shares?height=15&startShare=0&endShare=1

Which queries the proof of shares [0,1) in block 15.

Example response:

json
{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "id": -1,
  "result": {
    "data": [
      "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"
    ],
    "share_proofs": [
      {
        "end": 1,
        "nodes": [
          "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABITEjJCQyQyiJkAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEhMSMkJDJDKImbiwnpOdwIZBFr0UiFhPKwGy/XIIjL+gqm0fqxIw0z0o",
          "/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////3+fuhlzUfKJnZD8yg/JOtZla2V3g2Q7y+18iH5j0Uxk"
        ]
      }
    ],
    "namespace_id": "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABA==",
    "row_proof": {
      "row_roots": [
        "000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000400000000000000000000000000000000000000121312324243243288993946154604701154F739F3D1B5475786DDD960F06D8708D4E870DA6501C51750"
      ],
      "proofs": [
        {
          "total": "8",
          "index": "0",
          "leaf_hash": "300xzO8TiLwPNuREY6OJcRKzTHQ4y6yy6qH0wAuMMrc=",
          "aunts": [
            "ugp0sV9YNEI5pOiYR7RdOdswwlfBh2o3XiRsmMNmbKs=",
            "3dMFZFaWZMTZVXhphF5TxlCJ+CT3EvmMFOpiXFH+ID4=",
            "srl59GiTSiwC9LqdYASzFC6TvusyY7njX8/XThp6Xws="
          ]
        }
      ],
      "start_row": 0,
      "end_row": 0
    },
    "namespace_version": 0
  }
}
{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "id": -1,
  "result": {
    "data": [
      "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"
    ],
    "share_proofs": [
      {
        "end": 1,
        "nodes": [
          "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABITEjJCQyQyiJkAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEhMSMkJDJDKImbiwnpOdwIZBFr0UiFhPKwGy/XIIjL+gqm0fqxIw0z0o",
          "/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////3+fuhlzUfKJnZD8yg/JOtZla2V3g2Q7y+18iH5j0Uxk"
        ]
      }
    ],
    "namespace_id": "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABA==",
    "row_proof": {
      "row_roots": [
        "000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000400000000000000000000000000000000000000121312324243243288993946154604701154F739F3D1B5475786DDD960F06D8708D4E870DA6501C51750"
      ],
      "proofs": [
        {
          "total": "8",
          "index": "0",
          "leaf_hash": "300xzO8TiLwPNuREY6OJcRKzTHQ4y6yy6qH0wAuMMrc=",
          "aunts": [
            "ugp0sV9YNEI5pOiYR7RdOdswwlfBh2o3XiRsmMNmbKs=",
            "3dMFZFaWZMTZVXhphF5TxlCJ+CT3EvmMFOpiXFH+ID4=",
            "srl59GiTSiwC9LqdYASzFC6TvusyY7njX8/XThp6Xws="
          ]
        }
      ],
      "start_row": 0,
      "end_row": 0
    },
    "namespace_version": 0
  }
}

NOTE: The values are base64 encoded. For these to be usable with the solidity smart contract, they need to be converted to bytes32. Check the next section for more information.

WARNING

As of Celestia-app v1.10.0, the prove_shares endpoint is being deprecated in favor of prove_shares_v2. Please use the new endpoint for the queries as the old one will be removed in upcoming releases.

Golang client

The endpoint can be queried using the golang client:

go
	sharesProof, err := trpc.ProveShares(ctx, 15, 0, 1)
	if err != nil {
		...
	}
	sharesProof, err := trpc.ProveShares(ctx, 15, 0, 1)
	if err != nil {
		...
	}

WARNING

As of Celestia-app v1.10.0, the ProveShares method is being deprecated in favor of ProveSharesV2. Please use the new method for the queries as the old one will be removed in upcoming releases.

Converting the proofs to be usable in the DAVerifier library

Smart contracts that use the DAVerifier library take the following proof format:

solidity
/// @notice Contains the necessary parameters to prove that some shares, which were posted to
/// the Celestia network, were committed to by the BlobstreamX smart contract.
struct SharesProof {
    // The shares that were committed to.
    bytes[] data;
    // The shares proof to the row roots. If the shares span multiple rows, we will have multiple nmt proofs.
    NamespaceMerkleMultiproof[] shareProofs;
    // The namespace of the shares.
    Namespace namespace;
    // The rows where the shares belong. If the shares span multiple rows, we will have multiple rows.
    NamespaceNode[] rowRoots;
    // The proofs of the rowRoots to the data root.
    BinaryMerkleProof[] rowProofs;
    // The proof of the data root tuple to the data root tuple root that was posted to the BlobstreamX contract.
    AttestationProof attestationProof;
}

/// @notice Contains the necessary parameters needed to verify that a data root tuple
/// was committed to, by the BlobstreamX smart contract, at some specif nonce.
struct AttestationProof {
    // the attestation nonce that commits to the data root tuple.
    uint256 tupleRootNonce;
    // the data root tuple that was committed to.
    DataRootTuple tuple;
    // the binary Merkle proof of the tuple to the commitment.
    BinaryMerkleProof proof;
}
/// @notice Contains the necessary parameters to prove that some shares, which were posted to
/// the Celestia network, were committed to by the BlobstreamX smart contract.
struct SharesProof {
    // The shares that were committed to.
    bytes[] data;
    // The shares proof to the row roots. If the shares span multiple rows, we will have multiple nmt proofs.
    NamespaceMerkleMultiproof[] shareProofs;
    // The namespace of the shares.
    Namespace namespace;
    // The rows where the shares belong. If the shares span multiple rows, we will have multiple rows.
    NamespaceNode[] rowRoots;
    // The proofs of the rowRoots to the data root.
    BinaryMerkleProof[] rowProofs;
    // The proof of the data root tuple to the data root tuple root that was posted to the BlobstreamX contract.
    AttestationProof attestationProof;
}

/// @notice Contains the necessary parameters needed to verify that a data root tuple
/// was committed to, by the BlobstreamX smart contract, at some specif nonce.
struct AttestationProof {
    // the attestation nonce that commits to the data root tuple.
    uint256 tupleRootNonce;
    // the data root tuple that was committed to.
    DataRootTuple tuple;
    // the binary Merkle proof of the tuple to the commitment.
    BinaryMerkleProof proof;
}

To construct the SharesProof, we will adapt the queried response above as follows.

data

This is the raw shares that were submitted to Celestia in the bytes format. If we take the example blob that was submitted in the RollupInclusionProofs.t.sol, we can convert it to bytes using the abi.encode(...) as done for this variable. This can be gotten from the above result of the transaction inclusion proof query in the field data.

If the data field is retrieved from an HTTP request, it should be converted to hex before using abi.encode(...).

shareProofs

This is the shares proof to the row roots. These can contain multiple proofs if the shares containing the blob span across multiple rows. To construct them, we will use the result of the transaction inclusion proof section.

While the NamespaceMerkleMultiproof being:

solidity
/// @notice Namespace Merkle Tree Multiproof structure. Proves multiple leaves.
struct NamespaceMerkleMultiproof {
    // The beginning key of the leaves to verify.
    uint256 beginKey;
    // The ending key of the leaves to verify.
    uint256 endKey;
    // List of side nodes to verify and calculate tree.
    NamespaceNode[] sideNodes;
}
/// @notice Namespace Merkle Tree Multiproof structure. Proves multiple leaves.
struct NamespaceMerkleMultiproof {
    // The beginning key of the leaves to verify.
    uint256 beginKey;
    // The ending key of the leaves to verify.
    uint256 endKey;
    // List of side nodes to verify and calculate tree.
    NamespaceNode[] sideNodes;
}

So, we can construct the NamespaceMerkleMultiproof with the following mapping:

  • beginKey in the Solidity struct == start in the query response

  • endKey in the Solidity struct == end in the query response

  • sideNodes in the Solidity struct == nodes in the query response

  • The NamespaceNode, which is the type of the sideNodes, is defined as follows:

solidity
/// @notice Namespace Merkle Tree node.
struct NamespaceNode {
    // Minimum namespace.
    Namespace min;
    // Maximum namespace.
    Namespace max;
    // Node value.
    bytes32 digest;
}
/// @notice Namespace Merkle Tree node.
struct NamespaceNode {
    // Minimum namespace.
    Namespace min;
    // Maximum namespace.
    Namespace max;
    // Node value.
    bytes32 digest;
}

So, we construct a NamespaceNode via taking the values from the nodes field in the query response, we convert them from base64 to hex in case of an HTTP request, then we use the following mapping:

  • min == the first 29 bytes in the decoded value
  • max == the second 29 bytes in the decoded value
  • digest == the remaining 32 bytes in the decoded value

The min and max are Namespace type which is:

solidity
/// @notice A representation of the Celestia-app namespace ID and its version.
/// See: https://celestiaorg.github.io/celestia-app/specs/namespace.html
struct Namespace {
    // The namespace version.
    bytes1 version;
    // The namespace ID.
    bytes28 id;
}
/// @notice A representation of the Celestia-app namespace ID and its version.
/// See: https://celestiaorg.github.io/celestia-app/specs/namespace.html
struct Namespace {
    // The namespace version.
    bytes1 version;
    // The namespace ID.
    bytes28 id;
}

So, to construct them, we separate the 29 bytes in the decoded value to:

  • first byte: version
  • remaining 28 bytes: id

An example of doing this can be found in the RollupInclusionProofs.t.sol test.

A golang helper that can be used to make this conversion is as follows:

go
func toNamespaceMerkleMultiProofs(proofs []*tmproto.NMTProof) []client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof {
	shareProofs := make([]client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(proof.Nodes))
		for j, node := range proof.Nodes {
			sideNodes[j] = *toNamespaceNode(node)
		}
		shareProofs[i] = client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof{
			BeginKey:  big.NewInt(int64(proof.Start)),
			EndKey:    big.NewInt(int64(proof.End)),
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
		}
	}
	return shareProofs
}

func minNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[0]
	var id [28]byte
	copy(id[:], innerNode[1:29])
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func maxNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[29]
	var id [28]byte
	copy(id[:], innerNode[30:58])
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func toNamespaceNode(node []byte) *client.NamespaceNode {
	minNs := minNamespace(node)
	maxNs := maxNamespace(node)
	var digest [32]byte
	copy(digest[:], node[58:])
	return &client.NamespaceNode{
		Min:    *minNs,
		Max:    *maxNs,
		Digest: digest,
	}
}
func toNamespaceMerkleMultiProofs(proofs []*tmproto.NMTProof) []client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof {
	shareProofs := make([]client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(proof.Nodes))
		for j, node := range proof.Nodes {
			sideNodes[j] = *toNamespaceNode(node)
		}
		shareProofs[i] = client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof{
			BeginKey:  big.NewInt(int64(proof.Start)),
			EndKey:    big.NewInt(int64(proof.End)),
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
		}
	}
	return shareProofs
}

func minNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[0]
	var id [28]byte
	copy(id[:], innerNode[1:29])
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func maxNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[29]
	var id [28]byte
	copy(id[:], innerNode[30:58])
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func toNamespaceNode(node []byte) *client.NamespaceNode {
	minNs := minNamespace(node)
	maxNs := maxNamespace(node)
	var digest [32]byte
	copy(digest[:], node[58:])
	return &client.NamespaceNode{
		Min:    *minNs,
		Max:    *maxNs,
		Digest: digest,
	}
}

with proofs being sharesProof.ShareProofs.

namespace

Which is the namespace used by the rollup when submitting data to Celestia. As described above, it can be constructed as follows:

solidity
/// @notice A representation of the Celestia-app namespace ID and its version.
/// See: https://celestiaorg.github.io/celestia-app/specs/namespace.html
struct Namespace {
    // The namespace version.
    bytes1 version;
    // The namespace ID.
    bytes28 id;
}
/// @notice A representation of the Celestia-app namespace ID and its version.
/// See: https://celestiaorg.github.io/celestia-app/specs/namespace.html
struct Namespace {
    // The namespace version.
    bytes1 version;
    // The namespace ID.
    bytes28 id;
}

Via taking the namespace value from the prove_shares query response, decoding it from base64 to hex, then:

  • first byte: version
  • remaining 28 bytes: id

An example can be found in the RollupInclusionProofs.t.sol test.

A method to convert to namespace, provided that the namespace size is 29, is as follows:

go
func namespace(namespaceID []byte, version uint8) *client.Namespace {
	var id [28]byte
	copy(id[:], namespaceID)
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}
func namespace(namespaceID []byte, version uint8) *client.Namespace {
	var id [28]byte
	copy(id[:], namespaceID)
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

with namespace being sharesProof.NamespaceID.

rowRoots

Which are the roots of the rows where the shares containing the Rollup data are localized.

In golang, the proof can be converted as follows:

go
func toRowRoots(roots []bytes.HexBytes) []client.NamespaceNode {
	rowRoots := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(roots))
	for i, root := range roots {
		rowRoots[i] = *toNamespaceNode(root.Bytes())
	}
	return rowRoots
}
func toRowRoots(roots []bytes.HexBytes) []client.NamespaceNode {
	rowRoots := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(roots))
	for i, root := range roots {
		rowRoots[i] = *toNamespaceNode(root.Bytes())
	}
	return rowRoots
}

with roots being sharesProof.RowProof.RowRoots.

rowProofs

These are the proofs of the rows to the data root. They are of type BinaryMerkleProof:

solidity
/// @notice Merkle Tree Proof structure.
struct BinaryMerkleProof {
    // List of side nodes to verify and calculate tree.
    bytes32[] sideNodes;
    // The key of the leaf to verify.
    uint256 key;
    // The number of leaves in the tree
    uint256 numLeaves;
}
/// @notice Merkle Tree Proof structure.
struct BinaryMerkleProof {
    // List of side nodes to verify and calculate tree.
    bytes32[] sideNodes;
    // The key of the leaf to verify.
    uint256 key;
    // The number of leaves in the tree
    uint256 numLeaves;
}

To construct them, we take the response of the prove_shares query, and do the following mapping:

  • key in the Solidity struct == index in the query response
  • numLeaves in the Solidity struct == total in the query response
  • sideNodes in the Solidity struct == aunts in the query response

The type of the sideNodes is a bytes32.

An example can be found in the RollupInclusionProofs.t.sol test.

A golang helper to convert the row proofs is as follows:

go
func toRowProofs(proofs []*merkle.Proof) []client.BinaryMerkleProof {
	rowProofs := make([]client.BinaryMerkleProof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(proof.Aunts))
		for j, sideNode :=  range proof.Aunts {
			var bzSideNode [32]byte
			copy(bzSideNode[:], sideNode)
			sideNodes[j] = bzSideNode
		}
 		rowProofs[i] = client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(proof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(proof.Total),
		}
	}
	return rowProofs
}
func toRowProofs(proofs []*merkle.Proof) []client.BinaryMerkleProof {
	rowProofs := make([]client.BinaryMerkleProof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(proof.Aunts))
		for j, sideNode :=  range proof.Aunts {
			var bzSideNode [32]byte
			copy(bzSideNode[:], sideNode)
			sideNodes[j] = bzSideNode
		}
 		rowProofs[i] = client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(proof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(proof.Total),
		}
	}
	return rowProofs
}

with proofs being sharesProof.RowProof.Proofs.

attestationProof

This is the proof of the data root to the data root tuple root, which is committed to in the Blobstream X contract:

solidity
/// @notice Contains the necessary parameters needed to verify that a data root tuple
/// was committed to, by the BlobstreamX smart contract, at some specif nonce.
struct AttestationProof {
    // the attestation nonce that commits to the data root tuple.
    uint256 tupleRootNonce;
    // the data root tuple that was committed to.
    DataRootTuple tuple;
    // the binary Merkle proof of the tuple to the commitment.
    BinaryMerkleProof proof;
}
/// @notice Contains the necessary parameters needed to verify that a data root tuple
/// was committed to, by the BlobstreamX smart contract, at some specif nonce.
struct AttestationProof {
    // the attestation nonce that commits to the data root tuple.
    uint256 tupleRootNonce;
    // the data root tuple that was committed to.
    DataRootTuple tuple;
    // the binary Merkle proof of the tuple to the commitment.
    BinaryMerkleProof proof;
}
  • tupleRootNonce: the nonce at which Blobstream X committed to the batch containing the block containing the data.
  • tuple: the DataRootTuple of the block:
solidity
/// @notice A tuple of data root with metadata. Each data root is associated
///  with a Celestia block height.
/// @dev `availableDataRoot` in
///  https://github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-specs/blob/master/src/specs/data_structures.md#header
struct DataRootTuple {
    // Celestia block height the data root was included in.
    // Genesis block is height = 0.
    // First queryable block is height = 1.
    uint256 height;
    // Data root.
    bytes32 dataRoot;
}
/// @notice A tuple of data root with metadata. Each data root is associated
///  with a Celestia block height.
/// @dev `availableDataRoot` in
///  https://github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-specs/blob/master/src/specs/data_structures.md#header
struct DataRootTuple {
    // Celestia block height the data root was included in.
    // Genesis block is height = 0.
    // First queryable block is height = 1.
    uint256 height;
    // Data root.
    bytes32 dataRoot;
}

which comprises a dataRoot, i.e. the block containing the Rollup data data root, and the height which is the height of that block.

  • proof: the BinaryMerkleProof of the data root tuple to the data root tuple root. Constructing it is similar to constructing the row roots to data root proof in the rowProofs section.

An example can be found in the RollupInclusionProofs.t.sol test.

A golang helper to create an attestation proof:

go
func toAttestationProof(
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	blockDataRoot [32]byte,
	dataRootInclusionProof merkle.Proof,
) client.AttestationProof {
	sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts))
	for i, sideNode :=  range dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts {
		var bzSideNode [32]byte
		copy(bzSideNode[:], sideNode)
		sideNodes[i] = bzSideNode
	}

	return client.AttestationProof{
		TupleRootNonce: big.NewInt(int64(nonce)),
		Tuple:          client.DataRootTuple{
			Height:   big.NewInt(int64(height)),
			DataRoot: blockDataRoot,
		},
		Proof:          client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Total),
		},
	}
}
func toAttestationProof(
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	blockDataRoot [32]byte,
	dataRootInclusionProof merkle.Proof,
) client.AttestationProof {
	sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts))
	for i, sideNode :=  range dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts {
		var bzSideNode [32]byte
		copy(bzSideNode[:], sideNode)
		sideNodes[i] = bzSideNode
	}

	return client.AttestationProof{
		TupleRootNonce: big.NewInt(int64(nonce)),
		Tuple:          client.DataRootTuple{
			Height:   big.NewInt(int64(height)),
			DataRoot: blockDataRoot,
		},
		Proof:          client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Total),
		},
	}
}

With the nonce being the attestation nonce, which can be retrieved using BlobstreamX contract events. Check below for an example. And height being the Celestia Block height that contains the rollup data, along with the blockDataRoot being the data root of the block height. Finally, dataRootInclusionProof is the Celestia block data root inclusion proof to the data root tuple root that was queried at the beginning of this page.

If the dataRoot or the tupleRootNonce is unknown during the verification:

  • dataRoot: can be queried using the /block?height=15 query (15 in this example endpoint), and taking the data_hash field from the response.
  • tupleRootNonce: can be retried via querying the BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored events from the BlobstreamX contract and looking for the nonce attesting to the corresponding data. An example:

Querying the proof's tupleRootNonce

go
	// get the nonce corresponding to the block height that contains the PayForBlob transaction
	// since BlobstreamX emits events when new batches are submitted, we will query the events
	// and look for the range committing to the blob
	// first, connect to an EVM RPC endpoint
	ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc_endpoint")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer ethClient.Close()

	// use the BlobstreamX contract binding
	wrapper, err := blobstreamxwrapper.NewBlobstreamX(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_Address"), ethClient)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	LatestBlockNumber, err := ethClient.BlockNumber(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	eventsIterator, err := wrapper.FilterDataCommitmentStored(
		&bind.FilterOpts{
			Context: ctx,
			Start: LatestBlockNumber - 90000, // 90000 can be replaced with the range of EVM blocks to look for the events in
			End: &LatestBlockNumber,
		},
		nil,
		nil,
		nil,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	var event *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored
	for eventsIterator.Next() {
		e := eventsIterator.Event
		if int64(e.StartBlock) <= tx.Height && tx.Height < int64(e.EndBlock) {
			event = &blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored{
				ProofNonce:     e.ProofNonce,
				StartBlock:     e.StartBlock,
				EndBlock:       e.EndBlock,
				DataCommitment: e.DataCommitment,
			}
			break
		}
	}
	if err := eventsIterator.Error(); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	err = eventsIterator.Close()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if event == nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("couldn't find range containing the block height")
	}
	// get the nonce corresponding to the block height that contains the PayForBlob transaction
	// since BlobstreamX emits events when new batches are submitted, we will query the events
	// and look for the range committing to the blob
	// first, connect to an EVM RPC endpoint
	ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc_endpoint")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer ethClient.Close()

	// use the BlobstreamX contract binding
	wrapper, err := blobstreamxwrapper.NewBlobstreamX(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_Address"), ethClient)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	LatestBlockNumber, err := ethClient.BlockNumber(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	eventsIterator, err := wrapper.FilterDataCommitmentStored(
		&bind.FilterOpts{
			Context: ctx,
			Start: LatestBlockNumber - 90000, // 90000 can be replaced with the range of EVM blocks to look for the events in
			End: &LatestBlockNumber,
		},
		nil,
		nil,
		nil,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	var event *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored
	for eventsIterator.Next() {
		e := eventsIterator.Event
		if int64(e.StartBlock) <= tx.Height && tx.Height < int64(e.EndBlock) {
			event = &blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored{
				ProofNonce:     e.ProofNonce,
				StartBlock:     e.StartBlock,
				EndBlock:       e.EndBlock,
				DataCommitment: e.DataCommitment,
			}
			break
		}
	}
	if err := eventsIterator.Error(); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	err = eventsIterator.Close()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if event == nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("couldn't find range containing the block height")
	}

Listening for new data commitments

For listening for new BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored events, sequencers can use the WatchDataCommitmentStored as follows:

go
    ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc")
    if err != nil {
	    return err
    }
    defer ethClient.Close()
    blobstreamWrapper, err := blobstreamxwrapper.NewBlobstreamXFilterer(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_address"), ethClient)
    if err != nil {
	    return err
    }

    eventsChan := make(chan *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored, 100)
    subscription, err := blobstreamWrapper.WatchDataCommitmentStored(
	    &bind.WatchOpts{
			Context: ctx,
        },
	    eventsChan,
	    nil,
	    nil,
	    nil,
	)
    if err != nil {
	    return err
    }
    defer subscription.Unsubscribe()

    for {
	    select {
	    case <-ctx.Done():
		    return ctx.Err()
		case err := <-subscription.Err():
			return err
		case event := <-eventsChan:
			// process the event
		    fmt.Println(event)
	    }
    }
    ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc")
    if err != nil {
	    return err
    }
    defer ethClient.Close()
    blobstreamWrapper, err := blobstreamxwrapper.NewBlobstreamXFilterer(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_address"), ethClient)
    if err != nil {
	    return err
    }

    eventsChan := make(chan *blobstreamxwrapper.BlobstreamXDataCommitmentStored, 100)
    subscription, err := blobstreamWrapper.WatchDataCommitmentStored(
	    &bind.WatchOpts{
			Context: ctx,
        },
	    eventsChan,
	    nil,
	    nil,
	    nil,
	)
    if err != nil {
	    return err
    }
    defer subscription.Unsubscribe()

    for {
	    select {
	    case <-ctx.Done():
		    return ctx.Err()
		case err := <-subscription.Err():
			return err
		case event := <-eventsChan:
			// process the event
		    fmt.Println(event)
	    }
    }

Then, new proofs can be created as documented above using the new data commitments contained in the received events.

Example rollup that uses the DAVerifier

An example rollup that uses the DAVerifier can be as simple as:

solidity
pragma solidity ^0.8.22;

import {DAVerifier} from "@blobstream/lib/verifier/DAVerifier.sol";
import {IDAOracle} from "@blobstream/IDAOracle.sol";

contract SimpleRollup {
    IDAOracle bridge;
    ...
    function submitFraudProof(SharesProof memory _sharesProof, bytes32 _root) public {
        // (1) verify that the data is committed to by BlobstreamX contract
        (bool committedTo, DAVerifier.ErrorCodes err) = DAVerifier.verifySharesToDataRootTupleRoot(bridge, _sharesProof, _root);
        if (!committedTo) {
            revert("the data was not committed to by Blobstream");
        }
        // (2) verify that the data is part of the rollup block
        // (3) parse the data
        // (4) verify invalid state transition
        // (5) effects
    }
}
pragma solidity ^0.8.22;

import {DAVerifier} from "@blobstream/lib/verifier/DAVerifier.sol";
import {IDAOracle} from "@blobstream/IDAOracle.sol";

contract SimpleRollup {
    IDAOracle bridge;
    ...
    function submitFraudProof(SharesProof memory _sharesProof, bytes32 _root) public {
        // (1) verify that the data is committed to by BlobstreamX contract
        (bool committedTo, DAVerifier.ErrorCodes err) = DAVerifier.verifySharesToDataRootTupleRoot(bridge, _sharesProof, _root);
        if (!committedTo) {
            revert("the data was not committed to by Blobstream");
        }
        // (2) verify that the data is part of the rollup block
        // (3) parse the data
        // (4) verify invalid state transition
        // (5) effects
    }
}

Then, you can submit the fraud proof using golang as follows:

go
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/pkg/square"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/x/qgb/client"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/accounts/abi/bind"
	ethcmn "github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/common"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/ethclient"
	blobstreamxwrapper "github.com/succinctlabs/blobstreamx/bindings"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/crypto/merkle"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/libs/bytes"
	tmproto "github.com/tendermint/tendermint/proto/tendermint/types"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/types"
	"math/big"
	"os"
)

func main() {
	err := verify()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
}

func verify() error {
	ctx := context.Background()


	// ...
	// check the first section for this part of the implementation

	// get the nonce corresponding to the block height that contains the PayForBlob transaction
	// since Blobstream X emits events when new batches are submitted, we will query the events
	// and look for the range committing to the blob
	// first, connect to an EVM RPC endpoint
	ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc_endpoint")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer ethClient.Close()

	// ...
	// check the first section for this part of the implementation

	// now we will create the shares proof to be verified by the SimpleRollup
	// contract that uses the DAVerifier library

	// get the proof of the shares containing the blob to the data root
	// Note: if you're using Celestia-app v1.10.0 onwards, please switch
	// to `trpc.ProveSharesV2` as `trpc.ProveShars` is deprecated.
	sharesProof, err := trpc.ProveShares(ctx, 16, uint64(blobShareRange.Start), uint64(blobShareRange.End))
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// use the SimpleRollup contract binding to submit to it a fraud proof
	simpleRollupWrapper, err := client.NewWrappers(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_Address"), ethClient)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// submit the fraud proof containing the share data that had the invalid state transition for example
	// along with its proof
	err = submitFraudProof(
		ctx,
		simpleRollupWrapper,
		sharesProof,
		event.ProofNonce.Uint64(),
		uint64(tx.Height),
		dcProof.Proof,
		blockRes.Block.DataHash,
	)

	return nil
}

func submitFraudProof(
	ctx context.Context,
	simpleRollup *client.Wrappers,
	sharesProof types.ShareProof,
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	dataRootInclusionProof merkle.Proof,
	dataRoot []byte,
) error {
	var blockDataRoot [32]byte
	copy(blockDataRoot[:], dataRoot)
	tx, err := simpleRollup.SubmitFraudProof(
		&bind.TransactOpts{
			Context: ctx,
		},
		client.SharesProof{
			Data:             sharesProof.Data,
			ShareProofs:      toNamespaceMerkleMultiProofs(sharesProof.ShareProofs),
			Namespace:        *namespace(sharesProof.NamespaceID),
			RowRoots:         toRowRoots(sharesProof.RowProof.RowRoots),
			RowProofs:        toRowProofs(sharesProof.RowProof.Proofs),
			AttestationProof: toAttestationProof(nonce, height, blockDataRoot, dataRootInclusionProof),
		},
		blockDataRoot,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// wait for transaction
}

func toAttestationProof(
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	blockDataRoot [32]byte,
	dataRootInclusionProof merkle.Proof,
) client.AttestationProof {
	sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts))
	for i, sideNode :=  range dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts {
		var bzSideNode [32]byte
		for k, b := range sideNode {
			bzSideNode[k] = b
		}
		sideNodes[i] = bzSideNode
	}

	return client.AttestationProof{
		TupleRootNonce: big.NewInt(int64(nonce)),
		Tuple:          client.DataRootTuple{
			Height:   big.NewInt(int64(height)),
			DataRoot: blockDataRoot,
		},
		Proof:          client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Total),
		},
	}
}

func toRowRoots(roots []bytes.HexBytes) []client.NamespaceNode {
	rowRoots := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(roots))
	for i, root := range roots {
		rowRoots[i] = *toNamespaceNode(root.Bytes())
	}
	return rowRoots
}

func toRowProofs(proofs []*merkle.Proof) []client.BinaryMerkleProof {
	rowProofs := make([]client.BinaryMerkleProof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(proof.Aunts))
		for j, sideNode :=  range proof.Aunts {
			var bzSideNode [32]byte
			for k, b := range sideNode {
				bzSideNode[k] = b
			}
			sideNodes[j] = bzSideNode
		}
 		rowProofs[i] = client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(proof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(proof.Total),
		}
	}
	return rowProofs
}

func toNamespaceMerkleMultiProofs(proofs []*tmproto.NMTProof) []client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof {
	shareProofs := make([]client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(proof.Nodes))
		for j, node := range proof.Nodes {
			sideNodes[j] = *toNamespaceNode(node)
		}
		shareProofs[i] = client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof{
			BeginKey:  big.NewInt(int64(proof.Start)),
			EndKey:    big.NewInt(int64(proof.End)),
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
		}
	}
	return shareProofs
}

func minNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[0]
	var id [28]byte
	for i, b := range innerNode[1:28] {
		id[i] = b
	}
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func maxNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[29]
	var id [28]byte
	for i, b := range innerNode[30:57] {
		id[i] = b
	}
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func toNamespaceNode(node []byte) *client.NamespaceNode {
	minNs := minNamespace(node)
	maxNs := maxNamespace(node)
	var digest [32]byte
	for i, b := range node[58:] {
		digest[i] = b
	}
	return &client.NamespaceNode{
		Min:    *minNs,
		Max:    *maxNs,
		Digest: digest,
	}
}

func namespace(namespaceID []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := namespaceID[0]
	var id [28]byte
	for i, b := range namespaceID[1:] {
		id[i] = b
	}
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/pkg/square"
	"github.com/celestiaorg/celestia-app/x/qgb/client"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/accounts/abi/bind"
	ethcmn "github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/common"
	"github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/ethclient"
	blobstreamxwrapper "github.com/succinctlabs/blobstreamx/bindings"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/crypto/merkle"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/libs/bytes"
	tmproto "github.com/tendermint/tendermint/proto/tendermint/types"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/rpc/client/http"
	"github.com/tendermint/tendermint/types"
	"math/big"
	"os"
)

func main() {
	err := verify()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
		os.Exit(1)
	}
}

func verify() error {
	ctx := context.Background()


	// ...
	// check the first section for this part of the implementation

	// get the nonce corresponding to the block height that contains the PayForBlob transaction
	// since Blobstream X emits events when new batches are submitted, we will query the events
	// and look for the range committing to the blob
	// first, connect to an EVM RPC endpoint
	ethClient, err := ethclient.Dial("evm_rpc_endpoint")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer ethClient.Close()

	// ...
	// check the first section for this part of the implementation

	// now we will create the shares proof to be verified by the SimpleRollup
	// contract that uses the DAVerifier library

	// get the proof of the shares containing the blob to the data root
	// Note: if you're using Celestia-app v1.10.0 onwards, please switch
	// to `trpc.ProveSharesV2` as `trpc.ProveShars` is deprecated.
	sharesProof, err := trpc.ProveShares(ctx, 16, uint64(blobShareRange.Start), uint64(blobShareRange.End))
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// use the SimpleRollup contract binding to submit to it a fraud proof
	simpleRollupWrapper, err := client.NewWrappers(ethcmn.HexToAddress("contract_Address"), ethClient)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// submit the fraud proof containing the share data that had the invalid state transition for example
	// along with its proof
	err = submitFraudProof(
		ctx,
		simpleRollupWrapper,
		sharesProof,
		event.ProofNonce.Uint64(),
		uint64(tx.Height),
		dcProof.Proof,
		blockRes.Block.DataHash,
	)

	return nil
}

func submitFraudProof(
	ctx context.Context,
	simpleRollup *client.Wrappers,
	sharesProof types.ShareProof,
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	dataRootInclusionProof merkle.Proof,
	dataRoot []byte,
) error {
	var blockDataRoot [32]byte
	copy(blockDataRoot[:], dataRoot)
	tx, err := simpleRollup.SubmitFraudProof(
		&bind.TransactOpts{
			Context: ctx,
		},
		client.SharesProof{
			Data:             sharesProof.Data,
			ShareProofs:      toNamespaceMerkleMultiProofs(sharesProof.ShareProofs),
			Namespace:        *namespace(sharesProof.NamespaceID),
			RowRoots:         toRowRoots(sharesProof.RowProof.RowRoots),
			RowProofs:        toRowProofs(sharesProof.RowProof.Proofs),
			AttestationProof: toAttestationProof(nonce, height, blockDataRoot, dataRootInclusionProof),
		},
		blockDataRoot,
	)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// wait for transaction
}

func toAttestationProof(
	nonce uint64,
	height uint64,
	blockDataRoot [32]byte,
	dataRootInclusionProof merkle.Proof,
) client.AttestationProof {
	sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts))
	for i, sideNode :=  range dataRootInclusionProof.Aunts {
		var bzSideNode [32]byte
		for k, b := range sideNode {
			bzSideNode[k] = b
		}
		sideNodes[i] = bzSideNode
	}

	return client.AttestationProof{
		TupleRootNonce: big.NewInt(int64(nonce)),
		Tuple:          client.DataRootTuple{
			Height:   big.NewInt(int64(height)),
			DataRoot: blockDataRoot,
		},
		Proof:          client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(dataRootInclusionProof.Total),
		},
	}
}

func toRowRoots(roots []bytes.HexBytes) []client.NamespaceNode {
	rowRoots := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(roots))
	for i, root := range roots {
		rowRoots[i] = *toNamespaceNode(root.Bytes())
	}
	return rowRoots
}

func toRowProofs(proofs []*merkle.Proof) []client.BinaryMerkleProof {
	rowProofs := make([]client.BinaryMerkleProof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make( [][32]byte, len(proof.Aunts))
		for j, sideNode :=  range proof.Aunts {
			var bzSideNode [32]byte
			for k, b := range sideNode {
				bzSideNode[k] = b
			}
			sideNodes[j] = bzSideNode
		}
 		rowProofs[i] = client.BinaryMerkleProof{
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
			Key:       big.NewInt(proof.Index),
			NumLeaves: big.NewInt(proof.Total),
		}
	}
	return rowProofs
}

func toNamespaceMerkleMultiProofs(proofs []*tmproto.NMTProof) []client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof {
	shareProofs := make([]client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof, len(proofs))
	for i, proof := range proofs {
		sideNodes := make([]client.NamespaceNode, len(proof.Nodes))
		for j, node := range proof.Nodes {
			sideNodes[j] = *toNamespaceNode(node)
		}
		shareProofs[i] = client.NamespaceMerkleMultiproof{
			BeginKey:  big.NewInt(int64(proof.Start)),
			EndKey:    big.NewInt(int64(proof.End)),
			SideNodes: sideNodes,
		}
	}
	return shareProofs
}

func minNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[0]
	var id [28]byte
	for i, b := range innerNode[1:28] {
		id[i] = b
	}
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func maxNamespace(innerNode []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := innerNode[29]
	var id [28]byte
	for i, b := range innerNode[30:57] {
		id[i] = b
	}
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

func toNamespaceNode(node []byte) *client.NamespaceNode {
	minNs := minNamespace(node)
	maxNs := maxNamespace(node)
	var digest [32]byte
	for i, b := range node[58:] {
		digest[i] = b
	}
	return &client.NamespaceNode{
		Min:    *minNs,
		Max:    *maxNs,
		Digest: digest,
	}
}

func namespace(namespaceID []byte) *client.Namespace {
	version := namespaceID[0]
	var id [28]byte
	for i, b := range namespaceID[1:] {
		id[i] = b
	}
	return &client.Namespace{
		Version: [1]byte{version},
		Id:      id,
	}
}

For the step (2), check the rollup inclusion proofs documentation for more information.

For an example project that uses the above proof queries, checkout the blobstreamx-example sample project.

Conclusion

After creating all the proofs, and verifying them:

  1. Verify inclusion proof of the transaction to Celestia data root
  2. Prove that the data root tuple is committed to by the Blobstream X smart contract

We can be sure that the data was published to Celestia, and then rollups can proceed with their normal fraud proving mechanism.

NOTE

The above proof constructions are implemented in Solidity, and may require different approaches in other programming languages.