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Integrate with Blobstream client ​

Blobstream demo rollup ​

Rollups can use the Blobstream for DA by posting their data to Celestia and then proving that it was posted on Ethereum. This is done identically to how any rollup or user would post data to Celestia, and then the validators sign over additional commitments that are relayed to Ethereum via a light client relay (aka Blobstream!). This demo will outline (note outline is not an implementation! please do not expect to copy and paste this code 🙂) a very simple Blobstream rollup to illustrate at a high level what this could look like.

Defining a chain ​

The first step to starting a new chain is to define the structure of the commitments that each block consists of.

go
type Block struct {
    // Data is the data of a block that is submitted to Celestia.
    Data `json:"Data"`
    // Header is the set of commitments over a block that is submitted to
    // Ethereum.
    Header `json:"Header"`
}

// Data is the data of a block that is submitted to Celestia.
type Data struct {
    Txs []json.RawMessage `json:"txs"`
}

// Header is the set of commitments over a block that is submitted to Ethereum.
type Header struct {
    Height             uint64    `json:"height"`
    Namespace          []byte    `json:"namespace"`
    PreviousHash       []byte    `json:"previous_hash"`
    Span               Span      `json:"span"`
    SequencerSignature Signature `json:"sequencer_signature,omitempty"`
}
type Block struct {
    // Data is the data of a block that is submitted to Celestia.
    Data `json:"Data"`
    // Header is the set of commitments over a block that is submitted to
    // Ethereum.
    Header `json:"Header"`
}

// Data is the data of a block that is submitted to Celestia.
type Data struct {
    Txs []json.RawMessage `json:"txs"`
}

// Header is the set of commitments over a block that is submitted to Ethereum.
type Header struct {
    Height             uint64    `json:"height"`
    Namespace          []byte    `json:"namespace"`
    PreviousHash       []byte    `json:"previous_hash"`
    Span               Span      `json:"span"`
    SequencerSignature Signature `json:"sequencer_signature,omitempty"`
}

Note the Celestia-specific structures in the header such as the Namespace and the Blobstream-specific structure called the Span. The goal of these structures are to locate the data in the Celestia block so that we can prove that data's inclusion via Blobstream if needed. Read more in the namespace specifications, and you can think of this like a chain ID. Learn more information about shares, which are small chunks of the encoded Celestia block. We use the same encoding here so that the commitments to the rollup block match those committed to by validators in the Celestia data root.

The Span could take many forms, but in this demo, we will use the following:

go
// Span describes the location of the rollup block data that is posted to
// Celestia. This is important for other nodes to be able to prove that data in
// the Celestia block. This can be thought of as a pointer to some data in the
// Celestia block.
type Span struct {
    // CelestiaHeight is the height of the Celestia block that contains the
    // rollup block data.
    CelestiaHeight uint64 `json:"celestia_height"`
    // DataShareStart is the index of the first share of the rollup block data.
    DataShareStart uint64 `json:"share_start"`
    // DataShareLen is length in shares of the rollup block data. This is used
    // to identify all of the rollup block data in a Celestia block.
    DataShareLen uint64 `json:"share_end"`
}
// Span describes the location of the rollup block data that is posted to
// Celestia. This is important for other nodes to be able to prove that data in
// the Celestia block. This can be thought of as a pointer to some data in the
// Celestia block.
type Span struct {
    // CelestiaHeight is the height of the Celestia block that contains the
    // rollup block data.
    CelestiaHeight uint64 `json:"celestia_height"`
    // DataShareStart is the index of the first share of the rollup block data.
    DataShareStart uint64 `json:"share_start"`
    // DataShareLen is length in shares of the rollup block data. This is used
    // to identify all of the rollup block data in a Celestia block.
    DataShareLen uint64 `json:"share_end"`
}

We can then define the blockchain as a collection of blocks and some additional information about the chain such as the sequencer address.

go
type Blockchain struct {
    Blocks           []Block
    SequencerAddress []byte
    Namespace        []byte
}
type Blockchain struct {
    Blocks           []Block
    SequencerAddress []byte
    Namespace        []byte
}

Rollup sequencer ​

The rollup sequencer is responsible for creating blocks and, in this demo, writing that data to Celestia and Ethereum. The rollup full node is responsible for reading that data from Celestia and Ethereum and verifying that it follows the protocol rules of that rollup.

Therefore, we can start by first defining the reading and writing interactions rollup nodes will have with both the Celestia and Ethereum networks. The actual implementations of these interfaces are left as exercises to the reader (ðŸĪŠ). Assume that those implementations of these interfaces are verifying the respective chain. For the connection to Celestia, this would likely mean connecting to a Celestia light node, which can detect faults in consensus such as hidden data. For the connection to Ethereum, this would likely mean running and connecting to a full node. More information on the RPC that is exposed by a Celestia light node can be found in the RPC documentation. Additionally, if you need more information on how to run a light node, you can check out the documentation.

go
// CelestiaLightNodeClient summarizes the actions that a rollup that uses
// Blobstream for DA would need from a Celestia light node. Note that the actual
// connection to this light node is arbitrary, but would likely involve an RPC
// connection to a Celestia light node.
type CelestiaLightNodeClient interface {
    GetBlockData(Span) (Data, error)
    SubmitBlockData(Data) (Span, error)
}

// EthereumClient summarizes the actions that a rollup that uses Blobstream for
// DA would need from an Ethereum client.
type EthereumClient interface {
    // GetLatestRollupHeight returns the height of the latest rollup block by
    // querying the appropriate contract on Ethereum.
    LatestRollupHeight() (uint64, error)
    // GetHeader returns the rollup header of a specific height.
    GetHeader(uint64) (Header, error)
    // SubmitHeader submits a header to the rollup bridge contract on Ethereum.
    SubmitHeader(Header) error
}
// CelestiaLightNodeClient summarizes the actions that a rollup that uses
// Blobstream for DA would need from a Celestia light node. Note that the actual
// connection to this light node is arbitrary, but would likely involve an RPC
// connection to a Celestia light node.
type CelestiaLightNodeClient interface {
    GetBlockData(Span) (Data, error)
    SubmitBlockData(Data) (Span, error)
}

// EthereumClient summarizes the actions that a rollup that uses Blobstream for
// DA would need from an Ethereum client.
type EthereumClient interface {
    // GetLatestRollupHeight returns the height of the latest rollup block by
    // querying the appropriate contract on Ethereum.
    LatestRollupHeight() (uint64, error)
    // GetHeader returns the rollup header of a specific height.
    GetHeader(uint64) (Header, error)
    // SubmitHeader submits a header to the rollup bridge contract on Ethereum.
    SubmitHeader(Header) error
}

Note that here we are waiting for the head to be posted to Ethereum, however, it would likely be better to simply download that header from the p2p network or directly from the sequencer instead.

For the purposes of this demo, we will be using a single centralized sequencer, which can be defined by simply wrapping the full node to isolate the logic to create blocks.

A rollup full node will just consist of some representation of a blockchain along with clients to read from with Celestia and Ethereum.

go
type Fullnode struct {
    Blockchain
    CelestiaLightNodeClient
    EthereumClient
}

// Sequencer wraps the demo Fullnode struct to add specific functionality for
// producing blocks.
type Sequencer struct {
    Fullnode
}
type Fullnode struct {
    Blockchain
    CelestiaLightNodeClient
    EthereumClient
}

// Sequencer wraps the demo Fullnode struct to add specific functionality for
// producing blocks.
type Sequencer struct {
    Fullnode
}

Committing to data ​

Typical blockchains commit to the transactions included in each block using a Merkle root. Rollups that use Blobstream for DA need to use the commitments that are relayed to the Blobstream contracts.

For optimistic rollups, this could be as simple as referencing the data in the Celestia block, not unlike using a pointer in memory. This is what is done below via a Span in the creating blocks section. We keep track of where the data is located in the Celestia block and the sequencer signs over that location in the header. If the sequencer commits to non-existent data or an invalid state root, then the invalid transaction is first proved to be included in the Span before the rest of the fraud proof process is followed. Find more information in the inclusion proofs documentation.

For zk rollups, this would involve creating an inclusion proof to the data root tuple root in the Blobstream contracts and then verifying that proof in the zk proof used to verify state. Find more information in the data root inclusion proof documentation.

Also, see the documentation for the data square layout and the shares of the Celestia block to see how the data is encoded in Celestia.

Creating blocks ​

The first step in creating a block is to post the block data to Celestia. Upon confirmation of the data being included in a block, the actual location of the data in Celestia can be determined. This data is used to create a Span which is included in the header and signed over by the sequencer. This Span can be used by contracts on Ethereum that use the Blobstream contracts to prove some specific data was included.

go
func (s *Sequencer) ProduceBlock(txs []json.RawMessage) (Block, error) {
    data := Data{Txs: txs}

    span, err := s.CelestiaLightNodeClient.SubmitBlockData(data)
    if err != nil {
        return Block{}, err
    }

    var lastBlock Block
    if len(s.Blocks) > 0 {
        lastBlock = s.Blocks[len(s.Blocks)-1]
    }

    header := Header{
        Height:       uint64(len(s.Blocks) + 1),
        PreviousHash: lastBlock.Header.Hash(),
        Namespce:     s.Namespace,
        Span: span,
    }

    signature := s.key.Sign(header.SignBytes())

    header.SequencerSignature = signature

    block := Block{
        Data:   data,
        Header: header,
    }

    s.AddBlock(block)

    return block, nil
}
func (s *Sequencer) ProduceBlock(txs []json.RawMessage) (Block, error) {
    data := Data{Txs: txs}

    span, err := s.CelestiaLightNodeClient.SubmitBlockData(data)
    if err != nil {
        return Block{}, err
    }

    var lastBlock Block
    if len(s.Blocks) > 0 {
        lastBlock = s.Blocks[len(s.Blocks)-1]
    }

    header := Header{
        Height:       uint64(len(s.Blocks) + 1),
        PreviousHash: lastBlock.Header.Hash(),
        Namespce:     s.Namespace,
        Span: span,
    }

    signature := s.key.Sign(header.SignBytes())

    header.SequencerSignature = signature

    block := Block{
        Data:   data,
        Header: header,
    }

    s.AddBlock(block)

    return block, nil
}

Note that the sequencer here is not yet posting headers to Ethereum. This is because the sequencer is waiting for the commitments from the Celestia validator set (the data root tuple roots) to be relayed to the contracts. Once the contracts are updated, the sequencer can post the header to Ethereum.

go
func (s *Sequencer) UpdateHeaders() error {
    latestRollupHeight, err := s.EthereumClient.LatestRollupHeight()
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }

    for i := latestRollupHeight; i <= uint64(len(s.Blocks)+1); i++ {
        err := s.EthereumClient.SubmitHeader(s.Blocks[i].Header)
        if err != nil {
            return err
        }
    }

    return nil
}
func (s *Sequencer) UpdateHeaders() error {
    latestRollupHeight, err := s.EthereumClient.LatestRollupHeight()
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }

    for i := latestRollupHeight; i <= uint64(len(s.Blocks)+1); i++ {
        err := s.EthereumClient.SubmitHeader(s.Blocks[i].Header)
        if err != nil {
            return err
        }
    }

    return nil
}

Rollup full node ​

Downloading the block ​

There are a few different mechanisms that could be used to download blocks. The simplest solution and what is outlined above is for Fullnodes to wait until the blocks and the headers are posted to the respective chains, and then download each as they are posted. It would also be possible to gossip the headers ahead of time and download the rollup blocks from Celestia instead of waiting for the headers to be posted to Ethereum. It's also possible to download the headers and the block data like a normal blockchain via a gossiping network and only fall back to downloading the data and headers from Celestia and Ethereum if the gossiping network is unavailable or the sequencer is malicious.

go
func (f *Fullnode) AddBlock(b Block) error {
    // Perform validation of the block
    if b.Header.Height != uint64(len(f.Blocks)+1) {
        return fmt.Errorf("failure to add block: expected block height %d, got %d", len(f.Blocks)+1, b.Header.Height)
    }
    // Check the sequencer's signature
    if !b.Header.SequencerSignature.IsValid(f.SequencerAddress) {
        return fmt.Errorf("failure to add block: invalid sequencer signature")
    }

    f.Blocks = append(f.Blocks, b)
    return nil
}

func (f *Fullnode) GetLatestBlock() error {
    nextHeight := uint64(len(f.Blocks) + 1)

    // Download the next header from etheruem before we download the block data
    // from Celestia. Note that we could alternatievely download the header
    // directly from the sequencer instead of waiting.
    header, err := f.EthereumClient.GetHeader(nextHeight)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }

    data, err := f.CelestiaLightNodeClient.GetBlockData(header.Span)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }

    return f.AddBlock(
        Block{
            Data:   data,
            Header: header,
        },
    )
}
func (f *Fullnode) AddBlock(b Block) error {
    // Perform validation of the block
    if b.Header.Height != uint64(len(f.Blocks)+1) {
        return fmt.Errorf("failure to add block: expected block height %d, got %d", len(f.Blocks)+1, b.Header.Height)
    }
    // Check the sequencer's signature
    if !b.Header.SequencerSignature.IsValid(f.SequencerAddress) {
        return fmt.Errorf("failure to add block: invalid sequencer signature")
    }

    f.Blocks = append(f.Blocks, b)
    return nil
}

func (f *Fullnode) GetLatestBlock() error {
    nextHeight := uint64(len(f.Blocks) + 1)

    // Download the next header from etheruem before we download the block data
    // from Celestia. Note that we could alternatievely download the header
    // directly from the sequencer instead of waiting.
    header, err := f.EthereumClient.GetHeader(nextHeight)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }

    data, err := f.CelestiaLightNodeClient.GetBlockData(header.Span)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }

    return f.AddBlock(
        Block{
            Data:   data,
            Header: header,
        },
    )
}

This outline of a Blobstream rollup isn't doing execution or state transitions induced by the transactions, however, that step would occur here. If fraud is detected, the fraud proof process will begin. The only difference between the fraud proof process of a normal optimistic rollup and a rollup that uses Blobstream for DA is that the full node would first prove the fraudulent transaction was committed to by the Sequencer using the Span in the header and before proceeding with the normal process.

More documentation ​

Proving inclusion via Blobstream ​

Blobstream inclusion proof docs and the verifier helper contracts.

Submitting block data to Celestia via light node ​

As linked above, use the Celestia light node RPC to submit the data to Celestia.

Posting headers to Ethereum ​

How headers are posted to Ethereum is entirely dependent upon how the rollup light client contracts work. For examples of interacting with the Ethereum blockchain programmatically, please see the go-ethereum book or one of the many other resources for submitting transactions or writing contracts.